Neurogenesis is the process of forming new neurons in the brain. An important part of early development but a process that continues, to a limited extent, throughout life.  The diversity of neurons that develop during the embryonic stage are as a result of neurogenesis: Neural stem cells differentiate and specialize in place and function within the brain. Stem cells can divide to produce more stem cells or produce specialized cells, such as progenitor cells, that go on to develop specific types of neurons.